In this lesson students practice stating reasons and conditions. Review the chart with your students and then have them do the practice activity and conversation questions.
|unless||Used to communicate that something is true or will happen except if something else happens.|
I’ll be at the meeting unless I am really busy.
Unless I’m really busy, I’ll be at the meeting.
(If I am really busy, I will not go to the meeting.)
|even if||Used to introduce something that does not affect the result of the main clause.|
I’ll be at the meeting even if I am really busy.
Even if I’m busy, I’ll be at the meeting.
(If I am busy, I will still go the meeting. The amount of work I have will not prevent me from attending the meeting.)
|as long as||Used to introduce that something will only happen or be true if what “as long as” introduces happens.|
I will be at the meeting as long as I’m not busy.
As long as I’m not busy, I’ll be at the meeting.
(If I am busy, I will not be at the meeting.)
|(just) in case||Used to introduce something that someone is preparing for because there is a chance it might happen.|
I asked Tim to take notes (just) in case I can’t go to the meeting.
(Just) in case I can’t go to the meeting, I asked Tim to take notes for me.
(I will probably be at the meeting, but I’m taking precautions because there is a possibility I won’t be at the meeting.)
|only if||Used to introduce something that must happen or be true for the main clause to happen.|
I’ll miss the meeting only if I have something really urgent to take care of.
I’ll only miss the meeting if I have something really urgent to take care of.
|now that||Used to explain a new situation.|
Now that I’m a manager, I attend more meetings.
I attend more meetings now that I’m a manager.
Complete the following so that they are true for you. Notice that we can use many of these expressions for both real and hypothetical situations.
I wouldn’t quit unless I were offered a lot more money. (hypothetical)
I won’t quit unless I’m offered a lot more money. (real)
Unless _______________________, I won’t_______________________.
I wouldn’t _______________________unless _______________________.
Even if _______________________, I wouldn’t_______________________.
I would still_______________________, even if _______________________.
I would _______________________ only if _______________________.
I will _______________________only if_______________________.
Now that_______________________, I’m not so _______________________.
It’s hard to _______________________ now that _______________________.
Just in case_______________________, I_______________________.
I don’t want to _______________________, just in case _______________________.
As long as _______________________, I _______________________.
I feel _______________________, as long as _______________________.
Discuss the following questions with a partner.
1. Under what circumstances do you think it’s a good idea for a company to restrict social media access at work?
2. Under what circumstances is it okay for companies to bribe government officials? Why?
3. Under what circumstances is it okay to get paid under the table? Why?
4. Under what circumstances would you move to another country?
5. Under what circumstances would you accept a promotion without a raise?
6. Under what circumstances would you quit your current job?
7. Under what circumstances would you consider a career change?
8. Under what circumstances would you work two jobs?
9. Under what circumstances would you retire at age 50?
10. Your own question: ________________________________________________?
11. Your own question: ________________________________________________?